The emerging, interdisciplinary field of regenerative medicine focuses on restoring the compromised functions of organs, tissues or cells that can involve a variety of different technologies, including cell therapy.
Cell therapy concerns the process of producing new cells to replace ' defective ' or damaged cells as a means of treating diseases and injuries. A form of cell therapy is stem cell therapy. Stem cells are progenitor cells that renew themselves and possess the ability to develop into functional differentiated cells, replacing malfunctioning damaged cell elements. In General, there are two large categories of stem cells: adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells.
Adult stem cells are derived from various tissues of the human body and can differentiate into many different cell types. For this faculty, adult stem cells are defined as ' multipotent '. embryonic stem cells , which are defined instead "Pluripotent", derive from pre-implant embryos and can develop in all possible cells and tissues of the body.
Embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are able, unlike adults, to self-renew indefinitely in their undifferentiated state. Many experimental results of care, extremely significant on studies for incurable human diseases, clearly demonstrate today, how these serious conditions result from the loss or malfunction of specific cell types of the body.
This is particularly true for diseases associated with ageing such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, osteoarthritis, and immunosenescence, i.e. the aging of the immune system . All this is also confirmed for health conditions resulting from cell damage due to acute illnesses, such as trauma, myocardial (heart attack), and Burns. Regenerative medicine therapies may provide additional treatment options for diseases caused by retinal degeneration that often lead to blindness. The replacement of damaged or malfunctioning cells with new and fully functional ones, can definitely be a therapeutic strategy useful to restore the functions of damaged cells for treatment and the most likely Healing from many of these pathological conditions.